The Sultan of Johor is a hereditary seat and sovereign ruler of Johor. The sultan has its own military force, Royal Johor Military Force and Royal Johor Police.

Sultan IbrahimEdit

Sultan Ibrahim was the 22nd Sultan of Johor.

The Resident-General of the Federal Malaya States, Frank Swettenham, proposed to Sultan Ibrahim on November 1899 for the construction of railway line to Johor, in conjunction with the plan of North-South Railway line in the Malay Peninsula. Sultan Ibrahim welcomed Swettenham of the plan but was weary of political British influence in Johor and insisted on financing the construction of the railway linehimself. Swettenham was comfortable with Sultan Ibrahim's prospect of financing the railway line using the state's revenues, and submitted his proposals to the Colonial Office in England. The proposals drew scepticism from the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Joseph Chamberlain, who was aware of Johor's financial difficulties and withheld decision. Sultan Ibrahim then sent his Abdul Rahman the following May to London to negotiate with the Colonial Office, and in April 1901, Sultan Ibrahim made a year-long trip to London to seek private English financers to fund the construction of the railway line and negotiated with the Colonial Office for a railway loan. The Sultan did, however, manage to obtain a loan for the construction of the railway and the Johor Railway Convention was signed in July 1904 by his adviser, Abdul Rahman, that gave provisions for an extension of the Malayan railway line to be extended into Johor. On 17 September 1923, the Causeway was opened to goods trains, whereas on 11 June 1924, the Causeway’s construction had officially constructed and involved more than 2,000 workers, local and European, over nearly five years and used around 1.14 million m3 of stone. The Causeway completed Singapore’s rail connection to the mainland, and enabled the rapid rise of motor transportation between Singapore and Malaya.

On 28 June 1924, the Causeway's official opening was held in Johor Bahru.

In January 1942, Yamashita and his officers then stationed themselves at the Sultan's residence, Istana Bukit Serene and the state secretariat building, Sultan Ibrahim Building to plan for the invasion of Singapore.

The Japanese established a military government in February 1942 after they settled down in Malaya. Tokugawa was appointed as its political adviser at the recommendation of Sultan Ibrahim. Relations between the military government and the monarchy were initially cordial throughout the Japanese occupation years, and Tokugawa briefly envisioned a plan for a united Malay Sultanate over the Malay Peninsula (including Pattani) with Sultan Ibrahim as its figurehead. However, as the Japanese began to experience economic difficulties and military defeats in the Pacific War from 1943 onwards, these plans were dropped and the military government channelled its efforts towards state agriculture. The Japanese continued the British policy of appointing a state adviser in Johor, and Sultan Ibrahim spent most of his time in his leisure activities.

Sultan Ibrahim on his part, became resentful of the Japanese military government during the later part of the occupation years. The Japanese gave orders to the Malay Sultans to contribute an annual stipend of $10,000 to support the Japanese war efforts, and public speeches which the rulers made were drafted by the propaganda department. In particular, Sultan Ibrahim was once publicly rebuked for leaning on his walking stick before Japanese officers and humiliating him in the process. Shortly before the Japanese surrendered in 1945, Sultan Ibrahim was expelled from his residence at Istana Bukit Serene and was forced to reside at Istana Pasir Pelangi, the crown prince's palace.

Sultan IskandarEdit

Sultan Iskandar was the 24th Sultan of Johor, who had died in 2010. Its legacy was used for the Sultan Iskandar Building, which was opened as part of the Johor Bahru CIQ modernization project.

The Lumba Kuda flats and other structures including Kampung Ungku Mohsin and Bukit Cagar recreational park are demolished.

Sultan Ibrahim IsmailEdit

Sultan Ibrahim had issued few decrees that Johor, as well as the former standalone British protectorates of Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu used to rest on Fridays and Saturdays, which is largely different than Malacca, Penang, Sabah, Sarawak and Federal Territory, which observe their weekends on Saturdays and Sundays. Johor together with Perlis were shifted to Saturday and Sunday on 1 January 1994 to synchronise with Singapore as well as Kuala Lumpur, as Johor was then an industrializing estate.

However, on 22 November 2013, he decreed that Johor will definitely move back to Fridays and Saturdays, to enable Muslims to attend the Friday prayers effective from 1 January 1994.

In August 2015, Sultan Ibrahim had decreed that the name Kulaijaya will be renamed back to Kulai, Nusajaya to be renamed to Iskandar Puteri whereas Ledang District was renamed to Tangkak District.

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