The Housing and Development Board (Abbreviation: HDB; Simplified Chinese: 建屋发展局; Template:Lang-ms; Template:Lang-ta) is the statutory board of the Ministry of National Development responsible for public housing in Singapore. It is generally credited with clearing up the squatters and slums of the 1960s and resettling residents into low-cost state-built housing. Today, as much as 82% of Singaporeans live in public housing provided by the HDB.
Shortly after achieving self-governance in 1959, Singapore faced a serious problem of housing shortages; low construction-rates and massive damage from World War II further exacerbated the prewar housing shortage. In 1947, the British Housing Committee Report noted Singapore had "one of the world’s worst slums -- ‘a disgrace to a civilised community'", and the average person per building density was 18.2 by 1947. High-rise buildings were also rare. In 1959, the problem of shortage remained. An HDB paper estimated that in 1966, 300,000 people lived in squatter settlements in the suburbs and 250,000 lived in squalid shophouses in the Central Area.  In its election campaign in 1959 the People's Action Party (PAP) recognized that housing required urgent attention and pledged that it would provide low-cost housing for the poor if it was elected. When it won the elections and formed the newly elected government, it took immediate action to solve the housing shortage. The government passed the Housing and Development Act of 1960 which replaced the existing Singapore Improvement Trust with the Housing and Development Board.
Led by Lim Kim San, the HDB made first priority during formation to build as many low-cost housing units as possible, and introduced the Five-Year Plan. The housing that was initially built was mostly meant for rental by the low-income group. The Home Ownership for the People Scheme was also introduced to help this group of people to buy instead of rent their flats. While the new scheme acted as a hedge against inflation, it provided financial security to home owners. Later, the people were allowed to use their Central Provident Fund money for down payment. These efforts were, however, not successful enough then in convincing the people living in the squatter settlements to move into these flats. It was only later, after the Bukit Ho Swee Fire in 1961, that HDB's efficiency and earnestness won the people over.
The HDB estimated that from 1960 to 1969, an average of 147,000 housing units - 80,000 from the current deficit, 20,000 due to the redevelopment of the Central Area, and 47,000 due to population increase - would need to be constructed; an average of about 14,000 a year. However, the private sector only had the ability to provide 2500 per year, and at price levels out of reach of the low-income.  As many as 54,430 housing units were built between 1960 and 1965 by the HDB. Due to land constraints, high-rise and high-density flats were chosen.
The policies of the HDB were largely in line of the manifesto set out by the Singapore government; the government was promoting social cohesion and patriotism within the country. In 1968, citizens were allowed to use their pension fund (Central Provident Fund) to purchase and own the homes they were renting to give them a stake of the country and as an incentive to work hard. In 1989, the Ethnic Integration Policy (EIP) was introduced to promote racial integration. To prevent social stratification that may lead to social conflict, the housing of different income groups are mixed together in estates and new towns.
In the 1990s, the HDB concentrated on the upgrading of existing older flats, installing new facilities such as lifts that stop on every floor. Studio apartments were built specially to suit the needs of senior citizens in Singapore's ageing society.
On 1 July 2003, the Building & Development Division of HDB was corporatised to form HDB Corporation Pte. Ltd. (HDBCorp in short). HDBCorp was later renamed as Surbana Corporation Pte. Ltd. HDB's headquarters were moved from Bukit Merah to their new premises at the HDB Hub at 480 Lorong 6 Toa Payoh on 10 June 2002.
The existing Bukit Merah premises, known as Surbana One, became the headquarters for Surbana Corporation Pte. Ltd.
New flats programmesEdit
|HDB new flats programmes|
|Registration for Flat||RFS||1980s||Feb 2002||Any surplus units from BTOs, balance BEs or|
HDB buy-back schemes through balloting method
|Walk In Selection||WIS||Mar 2002||Feb 2007|
|Mthly/Qtrly/Hyrly/Balance Sale||E-Sale||Apr 2007||-|
|Balloting Exercise||BE||Aug 1995||-||Only available for initial large surplus units of SERS|
|Build-To-Order (HDB)||BTO||Apr 2001||-||Buying a new flat with a waiting period of 4 years|
|Design, Build and Sell Scheme||DBSS||Oct 2006||-||Buying a new condominium design flat build by private developer|
|HDB Upgrading programmes|
|Main Upgrading Programme||MUP||Jul 1990||Apr 2011||Interior upgrading programmes for flats built up to 1986, and|
HIP which have not undergone MUP, with added optional improvements
|Home Improvement Programme||HIP||Aug 2007||-|
|Interim Upgrading Programme||IUP||Aug 1993||Aug 2002||The common areas of a precinct were upgraded, landscape upgrading programmes stopped in flavour of IUP Plus|
|Selective En bloc Redevelopment Scheme||SERS||Aug 1995||-||Flats built up to 1980 which have not undergone any type of upgrading programmes|
|Lift Upgrading Programme||LUP||Sep 2001||-||Direct level access to lift for flats built up to 1990,|
IUP Plus - a combination of two programmes, IUP and LUP
|Interim Upgrading Programme Plus||IUP Plus||May 2002||-|
|Neighbourhood Renewal Programme||NRP||Aug 2007||-||This would include MUP/HIP (interior) and IUP Plus (landscape) as it focus on block and neighbourhood improvements|
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