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The Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) (Template:Lang-ms; Template:Zh) system is an electronic toll collection scheme adopted in Singapore to manage traffic by way of road pricing, and as a usage-based taxation mechanism to complement the purchase-based Certificate of Entitlement system. The ERP was implemented by the Land Transport Authority in September 1998 to replace the Singapore Area Licensing Scheme after successfully stress-testing the system with vehicles running at high speed. Singapore was the first city in the world to implement an electronic road toll collection system for purposes of congestion pricing. The system uses open road tolling; vehicles do not stop or slow down to pay tolls.

The systemEdit

The scheme consists of ERP gantries located at all roads linking into Singapore's Central Area. They are also located along the expressways and arterial roads with heavy traffic to discourage usage during peak hours. The gantry system is actually a system of sensors on 2 gantries, one in front of the other. Cameras are also attached to the gantries to capture the rear license plate numbers of vehicles. As of 2018, there are 93 ERP gantries in Singapore. New gantries are implemented where congestion is severe, like expressways and other roads.

A device known as an In-vehicle Unit (IU) is affixed on the lower right corner of the front windscreen within sight of the driver, in which a stored-value card, the CashCard, is inserted for payment of the road usage charges. The second generation IU accepts Contactless NETS FlashPay and EZ-Link. The cost of an IU is S$150. It is mandatory for all Singapore-registered vehicles to be fitted with an IU if they wish to use the priced roads.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd sold the IU technology to Singapore, and the project was spearheaded by a Consortium comprising Philips Singapore Pte Ltd., Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Miyoshi Electronic Corporation and CEI Systems and Engineering (now known as CSE Global Ltd.) in 1995 through an open tender.

When a vehicle equipped with an IU passes under an ERP gantry, a road usage charge is deducted from the CashCard in the IU. Sensors installed on the gantries communicate with the IU via a dedicated short-range communication system, and the deducted amount is displayed to the driver on an LCD screen of the IU.

The charge for passing through a gantry depends on the location and time, the peak hour being the most expensive. Examples include a trip from Woodlands to Raffles Place via Yishun – CTE – CBD will cost about S$15 during peak as the driver will pass about 5 gantries, whereas during lunchtime, it will cost about S$2. Foreign visitors driving foreign-registered private vehicles on priced roads, during the ERP operating hours, could choose to either rent an IU or pay a daily flat fee of S$5 regardless how many ERP gantries entered, the payment is done and information is stored by Autopass Card until the vehicle leaves Singapore. Foreign-registered commercial vehicles, however, are required to install an IU.

If a vehicle owner does not have sufficient value in their CashCard (or EZ-Link) when passing through an ERP, the owner receives a fine by post within two weeks. The violator must pay the ERP charges plus a $10 administration fee within two weeks of the notice. Online payment is allowed; listing just the Vehicle Registration Number is required. Otherwise, a penalty of S$70 is issued by registered post to the vehicle owner, which rises to S$1000, or one month in jail, if not settled within 30 days.

Improvements and adaptationsEdit

According to a paper presented in the World Roads Conference 2006, the Land Transport Authority has been testing a system based on the Global Positioning System that may eventually replace the current Electronic Road Pricing system. The proposed system overcomes the inflexibility of having physical gantries, which "are not so flexible when it comes to re-locating them".

A lightweight version of this same technology is implemented for use on parking, known as the Electronic Parking System (EPS). It has since been adopted in favour by several carpark operators, superseding the use of autopay tickets or parking coupons. These systems have also typically switched to charging by the minute.

ImpactEdit

The LTA reported that road traffic decreased by nearly 25,000 vehicles during peak hours, with average road speeds increasing by about 20%. Within the restricted zone itself, traffic has gone down by about 13% during ERP operational hours, with vehicle numbers dropping from 270,000 to 235,000. It has been observed that car-pooling and public transport has increased, while the hours of peak vehicular traffic has also gradually eased and spread into off-peak hours, suggesting a more productive use of road space. In addition, it has been noted that average road speeds for expressways and major roads remained the same, despite rising traffic volumes over the years.

In some cases, the implementation of an ERP gantry along a road may move the traffic to outer roads. One instance of this is that the ERP gantry along the Central Expressway (CTE) has been said to have caused traffic to increase substantially in north-south trunk roads, such as along the Thomson Road and Serangoon Road corridors. The rising traffic prompted the LTA to add a gantry along Thomson Road, while Upper Serangoon Road's capacity was increased somewhat with the building of the viaduct, North East MRT Line and Kallang-Paya Lebar Expressway. The ERP gantry along Bukit Timah Expressway (BKE) has been said to have caused traffic to increase on Upper Bukit Timah Road, and the gantry was also put up, thus forcing them to go along the Hillview and Bukit Batok. This has prompted the Downtown MRT Line to be constructed.

The ERP gantry on the East Coast Parkway's west-bound carriageway was said to have led to increased traffic on Geylang Road and Nicoll Highway, where ERP gantries were also placed subsequently. The overloading on the East Coast Parkway was relieved with the opening of Marina Coastal Expressway on 29 December 2013. The latest ERP gantry to be put up is at TPE (eastbound), which goes to IKEA Tampines, TPE (westbound), which goes to Punggol Road as well as Haig Road.

Latest developmentsEdit

In an effort to improve the pricing mechanism and to introduce real-time variable pricing, Singapore's Land Transport Authority, together with IBM, ran a pilot from December 2006 to April 2007, with a traffic estimation and prediction tool (TrEPS), which uses historical traffic data and real-time feeds with flow conditions from several sources, to predict the levels of congestion up to an hour in advance. By accurate estimating prevailing and emerging traffic conditions, this technology is expected to allow variable pricing, together with improved overall traffic management, including the provision of information in advance to alert drivers about conditions ahead, and the prices being charged at that moment.

This new system integrates with the various LTA's traffic management existing systems, such as the Green Link Determining System (GLIDE), TrafficScan, Expressway Monitoring Advisory System (EMAS), Junction Electronic Eyes (J-Eyes), and the Electronic Road Pricing system. The pilot results were successful, showing overall prediction results above 85 percent of accuracy. Furthermore, when more data was available, during peak hours, average accuracy raised near or above 90 percent from 10 minutes up to 60 minutes predictions in the future.

The Land Transport Authority is also considering Global Navigation Satellite System as a technological option for a second generation ERP. LTA objective is to explore if the latest technologies available in the market today are accurate and effective enough for use as a congestion charging tool, especially taking into consideration the dense urban environment in Singapore. Implementation of such system is not expected in the short term.[1]

Similar systems in other metropolitan areasEdit

The ERP system attracted the attention of transport planners and managers in other metropolitan areas, particularly those in Europe and the United States. For example, the London Congestion Charge was introduced on 17 February 2003, after London officials visited Singapore to study the ERP system, and used it as a reference for the London system. London's charge area was expanded in 2007.

The Stockholm congestion tax is also a congestion pricing system implemented as a tax which is levied on most vehicles entering and exiting central Stockholm, Sweden.[2] The congestion tax was implemented on a permanent basis on 1 August 2007, after a seven-month trial period was held between 3 January 2006 and 31 July 2006.

In 2007, Dubai, at the United Arab Emirates, implemented a corridor congestion pricing scheme called Salik which works on similar principles. Since January 2008, Milan introduced a traffic charge scheme as a one-year trial, called Ecopass, and exempts high emission standard vehicles and some alternate fuel vehicles.

Similar system is expected to be operational on selected roads in Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia by early 2019

In other cities, similar systems have failed to see the green light for various reasons. For example, Hong Kong first conducted a pilot test on its Electronic Road Pricing system between 1983 and 1985 with positive results. However, public opposition against the move stalled its implementation. New studies conducted in the 1990s and the opposition towards further reclamation of the Victoria Harbour recently has led to advocates of the ERP as a possible alternative for road management.

List of gantriesEdit

In total, there are 93 ERP gantries in Singapore.

ERP GantriesEdit

  1. 1: Victoria Street
  2. 2: Nicoll Highway
  3. 3: Eu Tong Sen Street
  4. 4: Orchard Link
  5. 5: Lim Teck Kim Road
  6. 6: Anson Road
  7. 7: Tanjong Pagar Road
  8. 8: nil
  9. 9: Bencoolen Street
  10. 10: Queen Street
  11. 11: North Bridge Road
  12. 12: Oxley Road
  13. 13: Orchard Road
  14. 14: Orchard Turn
  15. 15: Killiney Road
  16. 16: Beach Road
  17. 17: Temasek Boulevard
  18. 18: Republic Boulevard
  19. 19: Havelock Road/Clemenceau Avenue
  20. 20: Havelock Road/CTE Exit
  21. 21: Buyong Road
  22. 22: Kramat Road
  23. 23: River Valley Road
  24. 24: Merchant Road/Clemenceau Avenue
  25. 25: Merchant Road/CTE Exit
  26. 26: Clemenceau Avenue
  27. 27: Cairnhill Road
  28. 28: Central Boulevard
  29. 29: Slip road from MCE to Maxwell Road
  30. 30: ECP to City
  31. 31: CTE after Braddell Road
  32. 32: PIE after Kallang Bahru on Woodsville Flyovoer
  33. 33: CTE from Serangoon Road
  34. 34: CTE from Balestier Road
  35. 35: CTE before Braddell Road
  36. 36: AYE to City before Alexandra Road
  37. 37: PIE to Changi after Adam Road Exit
  38. 38: PIE to Changi / Whitley Road
  39. 39: Thomson Road after Toa Payoh Rise
  40. 40: Bendemeer Road
  41. 41: Tuasbound AYE after North Buona Vista
  42. 42: PIE into CTE
  43. 43: Dunearn Road/Wayang Satu Flyover
  44. 44: Dunearn Road/Whitley Road
  45. 45: PIE slip road into Bendemeer Road
  46. 46: CTE northbound after PIE
  47. 47: Orchard Road after YMCA
  48. 48: Orchard Road after Handy Road
  49. 49: Fort Canning Tunnel
  50. 50: KPE southbound after Defu Flyover
  51. 51: CTE northbound before exit to PIE
  52. 52: Clementi Avenue 6 into AYE
  53. 53: Clementi Avenue 2 into AYE
  54. 54: BKE before PIE southbound
  55. 55: Upper Bukit Timah Road after Hume Avenue
  56. 56: Toa Payoh Lorong 6
  57. 57: Kallang Bahru
  58. 58: Geylang Bahru
  59. 59: Upper Boon Keng Road
  60. 60: Eu Tong Sen Street (The Central)
  61. 61: New Bridge Road before Upper Circular Road
  62. 62: South Bridge Road before Upper Circular Road
  63. 63: Fullerton Road eastbound
  64. 64: Fullerton Road westbound
  65. 65: PIE westbound before Eunos Link
  66. 66: Bayfront Avenue towards Raffles Avenue
  67. 67: PIE to CTE northbound before Braddell Road
  68. 68: CTE Slip Road to PIE (Changi) / Serangoon Road
  69. 69: Bayfront Avenue towards Marina Boulevard
  70. 70: Geylang Road
  71. 71: Woodsville Tunnel
  72. 72: Sheares Avenue towards Sheares Link
  73. 73: ECP eastbound before exit to KPE
  74. 74: Citybound AYE after Jurong Town Hall
  75. 80: KPE (ECP Changi Exit)
  76. 81: KPE (ECP Changi Exit)
  77. 82: KPE (PIE Changi Exit)
  78. 83: KPE (Sims Way Exit)
  79. 84: KPE (Nicoll Highway Exit)
  80. 85: KPE (PIE Tuas Exit)
  81. 86: KPE (Upper Paya Lebar Road Exit)
  82. 88: KPE (Airport Road Exit)
  83. 89: KPE before Tampines Road (Exit)
  84. 90: MCE westbound exit towards Marina Coastal Drive
  85. 91: MCE westbound before exit towards Maxwell Road
  86. 92: Marina Boulevard towards MCE (Eastbound)
  87. 93: MCE eastbound before exit towards Marina Coastal Drive
  88. 801: KPE (ECP Changi Entrance)
  89. 802: KPE (ECP City Entrance)
  90. 803: KPE (Nicoll Highway Entrance)
  91. 804: KPE (Sims Way Entrance)
  92. 806: KPE (PIE Tuas Entrance)
  93. 808: KPE (Airport Road Entrance)

See alsoEdit

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ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

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