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The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th, or 9/11)[nb 1] were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks launched by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda upon the United States in New York City and the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area on Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

Four passenger airliners were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists so they could be flown into buildings in suicide attacks. Two of those planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. Within two hours, both towers collapsed with debris and the resulting fires causing partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the WTC complex, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense), leading to a partial collapse in its western side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was targeted at Washington, D.C.,[1] but crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. In total, almost 3,000 people died in the attacks, including the 227 civilians and 19 hijackers aboard the four planes. It also was the deadliest incident for firefighters in the history of the United States.

Suspicion quickly fell on al-Qaeda. Although the group's leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, in 2004, he claimed responsibility for the attacks.[2] Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives for the attacks. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded law enforcement powers. Having evaded capture for years, bin Laden was located and killed by U.S. forces in May 2011.

The destruction of the Twin Towers and other properties caused serious damage to the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, closing Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U.S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed the attack, either out of fear of further attacks or respect for the tragedy. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York, the Pentagon Memorial, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in Pennsylvania.

On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site.[3] As of September 2013, the new tower's concrete construction is largely complete, and will officially open when the installation of podium glass and interior construction is completed in early 2014.[4]

The attackEdit

Early on the morning of September 11, 2001, 19 hijackers took control of four commercial airliners (two Boeing 757 and two Boeing 767) en route to California (three headed to LAX in Los Angeles, and one to SFO in San Francisco) after takeoffs from Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts; Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey; and Washington Dulles International Airport in Loudoun and Fairfax counties in Virginia.[5] Large planes with long flights were selected for hijacking because they would be heavily fueled.[6]

The hijackers do include:

Flight Hijackers
American Airlines Flight 11 Mohamed Atta
Abdulaziz al-Omari
Wail al-Shehri
Waleed al-Shehri
Satam al-Suqami
United Airlines Flight 175 Marwan al-Shehhi
Fayez Banihammad
Mohand al-ShehriHamza al-Ghamdi
Ahmed al-Ghamdi
American Airlines Flight 77 Hani Hanjour
Khalid al-Mihdhar
Majed Moqed
Nawaf al-Hazmi
Salem al-Hazmi
United Airlines Flight 93 Ziad Jarrah
Ahmed al-Haznawi
Ahmed al-Nami
Saeed al-Ghamdi

The 20th hijacker was a possible additional terrorist in September 11 attacks in 2001, and for whatever reason, was not allowed to participate. The 20th hijacker, though not present during the actual attacks, is said to have been deeply involved in the preparations. The latter plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was also less successful in its mission – instead of hitting any targets in Washington, D.C., it crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, due to resistance from passengers. Thus, the idea of a 20th hijacker came to be widely discussed.

Ramzi bin al-Shibh allegedly meant to take part in the attacks and may have served as the hijacker-pilot of American Airlines Flight 77, but he was repeatedly denied a visa for entry into the US.

Mohammed al-Qahtani, a Saudi Arabian citizen, is often referred to as the 20th hijacker. José Meléndez-Pérez, a U.S. Immigration inspector at Orlando International Airport refused his entry into the U.S. in August 2001. He was later captured in Afghanistan and imprisoned at the U.S. military prison known as Camp X-Ray at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

Zacarias Moussaoui, a French citizen of Moroccan origin, has widely been referred to as the 20th hijacker. Moussaoui may have been considered as a replacement for Ziad Jarrah, who at one point threatened to withdraw from the scheme because of tensions amongst the plotters. Plans to include Moussaoui were never finalized, as the al-Qaeda hierarchy had doubts about his reliability. Ultimately, Moussaoui did not play a role in the hijacking scheme. He was arrested about four weeks before the attacks.[

According to the BBC, Fawaz al-Nashimi claimed to have been the "20th hijacker". An Al-Qaeda video has been released from a US intelligence organization, showing al-Nashimi justifying attacks on the west. The U.S dismissed al-Nashimi's claims as propaganda.

The other al-Qaeda members who allegedly attempted, but were not able, to take part in the attacks were Saeed al-Ghamdi (not to be confused with the successful hijacker of the same name), Tawfiq bin Attash, Ali Abdul Aziz Ali, Mushabib al-Hamlan, Abderraouf Jdey, Zakariyah Essabar, Saeed Ahmad al-Zahrani, Ali Abd al-Rahman al-Faqasi al-Ghamdi, Saeed al-Baluchi, Qutaybah al-Najdi, Zuhair al-Thubaiti, and Saud al-Rashi. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the attack's alleged mastermind, had wanted to remove at least one member – Khalid al-Mihdhar – from the operation, but he was overruled by Osama bin Laden.

The four flights were:

  • American Airlines Flight 11: a Boeing 767 aircraft, departed Logan Airport at 7:59 a.m. en route to Los Angeles with a crew of 11 and 76 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the northern facade of the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City at 8:46 a.m.
  • United Airlines Flight 175: a Boeing 767 aircraft, departed Logan Airport at 8:14 a.m. en route to Los Angeles with a crew of nine and 51 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the southern facade of the South Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City at 9:03 a.m.
  • American Airlines Flight 77: a Boeing 757 aircraft, departed Washington Dulles International Airport at 8:20 a.m. en route to Los Angeles with a crew of six and 53 passengers, not including five hijackers. The hijackers flew the plane into the western facade of the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, at 9:37 a.m.
  • United Airlines Flight 93: a Boeing 757 aircraft, departed Newark International Airport at 8:42 a.m. en route to San Francisco, with a crew of seven and 33 passengers, not including four hijackers. As passengers attempted to subdue the hijackers, the aircraft crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, at 10:03 a.m.

Media coverage was extensive during the attacks and aftermath, beginning moments after the first crash into the World Trade Center.[7]

EventsEdit

At 8:46 a.m., five hijackers crashed American Airlines Flight 11 into the northern façade of the World Trade Center's North Tower (1 WTC), and at 9:03 a.m., another five hijackers crashed United Airlines Flight 175 into the southern façade of the South Tower (2 WTC).[8][9] Five hijackers flew American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon at 9:37 a.m.[10] A fourth flight, United Airlines Flight 93, under the control of four hijackers, crashed near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, southeast of Pittsburgh, at 10:03 a.m. after the passengers fought the hijackers. Flight 93's target is believed to have been either the Capitol or the White House.[6] Flight 93's cockpit voice recorder revealed crew and passengers tried to seize control of the plane from the hijackers after learning through phone calls that Flights 11, 77, and 175 had been crashed into buildings that morning.[11] Once it became evident to the hijackers that the passengers might regain control of the plane, the hijackers rolled the plane and intentionally crashed it.[12][13]
File:September 11 2001 just collapsed.jpg
File:North face south tower after plane strike 9-11.jpg

Some passengers and crew members who called from the aircraft using the cabin airphone service and mobile phones provided details: several hijackers were aboard each plane; they used mace, tear gas, or pepper spray to overcome attendants; and some people aboard had been stabbed.[14] Reports indicated hijackers stabbed and killed pilots, flight attendants, and one or more passengers.[5][15] According to the 9/11 Commission's final report, the hijackers had recently purchased multi-function hand tools and assorted Leatherman-type utility knives with locking blades, which were not forbidden to passengers at the time, but were not found among the possessions left behind by the hijackers.[16][17] A flight attendant on Flight 11, a passenger on Flight 175, and passengers on Flight 93 said the hijackers had bombs, but one of the passengers said he thought the bombs were fake. The FBI found no traces of explosives at the crash sites, and the 9/11 Commission concluded that the bombs were probably fake.[5]

Three buildings in the World Trade Center collapsed due to fire-induced structural failure.[18] The South Tower collapsed at 9:59 a.m. after burning for 56 minutes in a fire caused by the impact of United Airlines Flight 175 and the explosion of its fuel.[18] The North Tower collapsed at 10:28 a.m. after burning for 102 minutes.[18] When the North Tower collapsed, debris fell on the nearby 7 World Trade Center building (7 WTC), damaging it and starting fires. These fires burned for hours, compromising the building's structural integrity, and 7 WTC collapsed at 5:21 p.m.[19][20] The west side of the Pentagon sustained significant damage.

File:Pentagon Security Camera 1.ogv

At 9:42 a.m., the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) grounded all civilian aircraft within the continental U.S., and civilian aircraft already in flight were told to land immediately.[22] All international civilian aircraft were either turned back or redirected to airports in Canada or Mexico, and were banned from landing on United States territory for three days.[23] The attacks created widespread confusion among news organizations and air traffic controllers. Among the unconfirmed and often contradictory news reports aired throughout the day, one of the most prevalent said a car bomb had been detonated at the U.S. State Department's headquarters in Washington, D.C.[24] Another jet—Delta Air Lines Flight 1989—was suspected of having been hijacked, but the aircraft responded to controllers and landed safely in Cleveland, Ohio.[25]

In an April 2002 interview, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Ramzi bin al-Shibh, who are believed to have organized the attacks, said Flight 93's intended target was the United States Capitol, not the White House.[26] During the planning stage of the attacks, Mohamed Atta, the hijacker and pilot of Flight 11, thought the White House might be too tough a target and sought an assessment from Hani Hanjour (who hijacked and piloted Flight 77).[27] Mohammed said al-Qaeda initially planned to target nuclear installations rather than the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, but decided against it, fearing things could "get out of control".[28] Final decisions on targets, according to Mohammed, were left in the hands of the pilots.[27]

CasualtiesEdit

Main article: Casualties of the September 11 attacks
File:September 17 2001.jpg
File:9-11 Wall segment.jpg

The attacks caused the deaths of 2,996 people and the injuries of more than 6,000 others.[29] The death toll included 265 on the four planes (from which there were no survivors), 2,606 in the World Trade Center and in the surrounding area, and 125 at the Pentagon.[30][31] Nearly all of those who perished were civilians with the exceptions of 343 firefighters, 72 law enforcement officers, 55 military personnel, and the 19 terrorists who died in the attacks.[32][33] After New York, New Jersey lost the most state citizens, with the city of Hoboken having the most citizens that died in the attacks.[34] More than 90 countries lost citizens in the September 11 attacks;[35] for example, the 67 Britons who died were more than in any other terrorist attack anywhere Template:As of.[36] The attacks are the worst terrorist attack in world history, and the deadliest foreign attack on American soil since the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.[37]

In Arlington County, Virginia, 125 Pentagon workers lost their lives when Flight 77 crashed into the western side of the building. Of these, 70 were civilians and 55 were military personnel, many of them who worked for the United States Army or the United States Navy. The Army lost 47 civilian employees, six civilian contractors, and 22 soldiers, while the Navy lost six civilian employees, three civilian contractors, and 33 sailors. Seven Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) civilian employees were also among the dead in the attack, as well as an Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) contractor.[38][39][40] Lieutenant General Timothy Maude, an Army Deputy Chief of Staff, was the highest-ranking military official killed at the Pentagon.[41]

File:National Park Service 9-11 Statue of Liberty and WTC fire.jpg

In New York City, more than 90% of the workers and visitors who died in the towers had been at or above the points of impact.[42] In the North Tower, 1,355 people at or above the point of impact were trapped and died of smoke inhalation, fell or jumped from the tower to escape the smoke and flames, or were killed in the building's eventual collapse. The destruction of all three staircases in the tower when Flight 11 hit made it impossible for anyone above the impact zone to escape. 107 people below the point of impact died as well.[42]

In the South Tower, one stairwell, Stairwell A, was left intact after Flight 175 hit, allowing 14 people located on the floors of impact (including one man who saw the plane coming at him) and four more from the floors above to escape. New York City 911 operators who received calls from individuals inside the tower were not well informed of the situation as it rapidly unfolded and as a result, told callers not to descend the tower on their own.[43] In total 630 people died in that tower, fewer than half the number killed in the North Tower.[42] Casualties in the South Tower were significantly reduced by some occupants deciding to start evacuating as soon as the North Tower was struck.[44] The failure to fully evacuate the South Tower after the first jet crash into the North Tower was described by USA Today as "one of the day's great tragedies".[45]

File:French Urban Search and Rescue.jpg

At least 200 people fell or jumped to their deaths from the burning towers (as exemplified in the photograph The Falling Man), landing on the streets and rooftops of adjacent buildings hundreds of feet below.[46] Some occupants of each tower above the point of impact made their way toward the roof in hope of helicopter rescue, but the roof access doors were locked.[47] No plan existed for helicopter rescues, and the combination of roof equipment and thick smoke and intense heat prevented helicopters from approaching.[48] A total of 411 emergency workers died as they tried to rescue people and fight fires. The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) lost 343 firefighters, including a chaplain and two paramedics.[49] The New York City Police Department (NYPD) lost 23 officers.[50] The Port Authority Police Department (PAPD) lost 37 officers.[51] Eight emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics from private emergency medical services units were killed.[52]

Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., an investment bank on the 101st–105th floors of the North Tower, lost 658 employees, considerably more than any other employer.[53] Marsh Inc., located immediately below Cantor Fitzgerald on floors 93–100, lost 358 employees,[54][55] and 175 employees of Aon Corporation were also killed.[56] The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) estimated that about 17,400 civilians were in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the attacks. Turnstile counts from the Port Authority suggest 14,154 people were typically in the Twin Towers by 8:45 a.m.[57][58] Most people below the impact zone safely evacuated the buildings.[59]

Deaths (victims + hijackers)
New York City Template:Nobr Template:Nobr
American 11 87 + 5[60]
United 175 60 + 5[61]
Arlington Pentagon 125[62]
American 77 59 + 5[63]
Template:Nobr United 93 40 + 4[64]
Total Template:Nobr

Weeks after the attack, the death toll was estimated to be over 6,000, more than twice the number of deaths eventually confirmed.[65] The city was only able to identify remains for about 1,600 of the World Trade Center victims. The medical examiner's office collected "about 10,000 unidentified bone and tissue fragments that cannot be matched to the list of the dead".[66] Bone fragments were still being found in 2006 by workers who were preparing to demolish the damaged Deutsche Bank Building. In 2010, a team of anthropologists and archaeologists searched for human remains and personal items at the Fresh Kills Landfill, where seventy-two more human remains were recovered, bringing the total found to 1,845. DNA profiling continues in an attempt to identify additional victims.[67][68][69] The remains are being held in storage in Memorial Park, outside the New York City Medical Examiner's facilities. It was expected that the remains would be moved in 2013 to a repository behind a wall at the 9/11 museum. In July 2011, a team of scientists at the Office of Chief Medical Examiner was still trying to identify remains, in the hope that improved technology will allow them to identify other victims.[69] On August 7, 2017, the 1,641st victim was identified as a result of newly available DNA technology.[70] There are still 1,112 victims who have not been identified.[71]

DamageEdit

Template:Further

File:World Trade Center 3 After 9-11 Attacks With Original Building Locations.jpg
File:Aerial view of the Pentagon during rescue operations post-September 11 attack.JPEG

Along with the 110-floor Twin Towers, numerous other buildings at the World Trade Center site were destroyed or badly damaged, including WTC buildings 3 through 7 and St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church.[72] The North Tower, South Tower, the Marriott Hotel (3 WTC), and 7 WTC were completely destroyed. The U.S. Customs House (6 World Trade Center), 4 World Trade Center, 5 World Trade Center, and both pedestrian bridges connecting buildings were severely damaged. The Deutsche Bank Building on 130 Liberty Street was partially damaged and demolished some years later, starting in 2007.[73][74] The two buildings of the World Financial Center also suffered damage.[73]

The Deutsche Bank Building across Liberty Street from the World Trade Center complex was later condemned as uninhabitable because of toxic conditions inside the office tower, and was deconstructed.[75][76] The Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall at 30 West Broadway was condemned due to extensive damage in the attacks, and is being rebuilt.[77] Other neighboring buildings (including 90 West Street and the Verizon Building) suffered major damage but have been restored.[78] World Financial Center buildings, One Liberty Plaza, the Millenium Hilton, and 90 Church Street had moderate damage and have since been restored.[79] Communications equipment on top of the North Tower was also destroyed, but media stations were quickly able to reroute the signals and resume their broadcasts.[72][80]

The Pentagon was severely damaged by the impact of American Airlines Flight 77 and ensuing fires, causing one section of the building to collapse.[81] As the airplane approached the Pentagon, its wings knocked down light poles and its right engine hit a power generator before crashing into the western side of the building.[82][83] The plane hit the Pentagon at the first-floor level. The front part of the fuselage disintegrated on impact, while the mid and tail sections kept moving for another fraction of a second.[84] Debris from the tail section penetrated furthest into the building, breaking through Template:Convert of the three outermost of the building's five rings.[84][85]

Rescue effortsEdit

Main article: Rescue and recovery effort after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center
File:DN-SD-04-12744.JPEG

The New York City Fire Department deployed 200 units (half of the department) to the World Trade Center. Their efforts were supplemented by numerous off-duty firefighters and emergency medical technicians.[86][87][88] The New York City Police Department sent Emergency Service Units and other police personnel, and deployed its aviation unit. Once on the scene, the FDNY, the NYPD, and the PAPD did not coordinate efforts and performed redundant searches for civilians.[86][89] As conditions deteriorated, the NYPD aviation unit relayed information to police commanders, who issued orders for its personnel to evacuate the towers; most NYPD officers were able to safely evacuate before the buildings collapsed.[89][90] With separate command posts set up and incompatible radio communications between the agencies, warnings were not passed along to FDNY commanders.

After the first tower collapsed, FDNY commanders issued evacuation warnings. Due to technical difficulties with malfunctioning radio repeater systems, many firefighters never heard the evacuation orders. 9-1-1 dispatchers also received information from callers that was not passed along to commanders on the scene.[87] Within hours of the attack, a substantial search and rescue operation was launched. After months of around-the-clock operations, the World Trade Center site was cleared by the end of May 2002.[91]

Airport securityEdit

After the 9/11 attacks, questions were raised regarding the effectiveness of airport security at that time, as all 19 hijackers involved in 9/11, managed to pass existing checkpoints and board the airplanes without incident. In the months and years following September 11, 2001, security at many airports worldwide was escalated to deter similar terrorist plots.

Prior to September 11, 2001, airport screening was provided in the U.S. by private companies contracted by the airline or airport. In November 2001, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) was introduced to take over all security functions under the FAA, the airlines and the airport. Among other changes, bulletproofed and locked cockpit doors became standard for all commercial aircraft.

Cockpit doors on many aircraft are now reinforced and bulletproof to prevent unauthorised access. Passengers are prohibited from viewing the cockpit during the flight. Some of the aircraft are equipped with CCTV cameras so that pilots can monitor cabin activity. Pilots are now allowed to carry firearms, but they must be trained and licensed. In the U.S., more air marshals have been placed on flights to improve security.

On September 11, four hijackers all set off the metal detector. Despite being scanned with a hand-held detector, the hijackers were passed through. Security camera footage later showed some hijackers had what appeared to be box cutters clipped to their back pockets. Box cutters and small knives are allowed on board the aircraft at the time. However, airport checkpoint screening has been significantly tightened since 2001, and security personnel are more thoroughly trained to detect weapons or explosives. In addition to standard metal detectors, many U.S. airports now employ full-body scanning machines, in which passengers are essentially X-rayed to check for potential hidden weapons or explosives on their persons.

On September 11, some hijackers lacked proper identification, yet they were allowed to board. After 9/11, all passengers 18 years or older must now have valid, government-issued identification in order to fly. Airports may check the ID of any passenger at any time to ensure the details on the ID match those on the printed boarding pass. Only under exceptional circumstances may an individual fly without a valid ID. If approved for flying without an ID, the individual will be subject to extra screening of their person and their carry-on items. TSA does not have the capability to conduct background checks at the checkpoints. Sensitive areas of the airports, such as airport ramps and operational spaces are restricted from the general public.

Peng Peng's father favourite nail clipper was confiscated at Changi Airport after the 9/11 attacks, and so besides knives, scissors, box cutters; nail clippers are prohibited from the aircraft.

MemorialsEdit

Closings and cancellationsEdit

Rapid TransitEdit

The tracks and station under the WTC were shut down within minutes of the first plane crash. All remaining New York City Subway service was suspended from 10:20am to 12:48pm.[146] Immediately after the attacks and more so after the collapses of the Twin Towers, many trains running in Lower Manhattan lost power and had to be evacuated through the tunnels. Some trains had power but the signals did not, requiring special operating procedures to ensure safety.

The IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, which ran below the World Trade Center between Chambers Street and Rector Street, was the most crippled. Sections of the tunnel as well as Cortlandt Street were badly damaged and had to be rebuilt. Service was immediately suspended south of Chambers Street and then cut back to 14th Street. There was also subsequent flooding on the line south of 34th Street–Penn Station. After the flood was cleaned up, express service was able to resume on September 17 with Template:NYCS trains running between Van Cortlandt Park–242nd Street and 14th Street, making local stops north of and express stops south of 96th Street, while Template:NYCS and Template:NYCS trains made all stops in Manhattan (but bypassed all stations between Canal Street and Fulton Street until October 1). 1/9 skip-stop service was suspended.

After a few switching delays at 96th Street, service was changed on September 19. The Template:NYCS service train resumed local service in Manhattan, but was extended to New Lots Avenue in Brooklyn (switching onto the express tracks at Chambers Street) to replace the 3, which now terminated at 14th Street as an express. The Template:NYCS service train continued to make local stops in Manhattan and service between Chambers Street and South Ferry as well as skip-stop service remained suspended. Normal service on all four trains was restored September 15, 2002, but Cortlandt Street will remain closed while the World Trade Center site is redeveloped.[147]

Service on the BMT Broadway Line was also disrupted because the tracks from the Montague Street Tunnel run adjacent to the World Trade Center and there were concerns that train movements could cause unsafe settling of the debris pile. Cortlandt Street station, which sits under Church Street, sustained significant damage in the collapse of the towers. It was closed until September 15, 2002 for removal of debris, structural repairs, and restoration of the track beds, which had suffered flood damage in the aftermath of the collapse. Starting September 17, 2001, Template:NYCS and Template:NYCS service was suspended and respectively replaced by the Template:NYCS service (which was extended to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue via the BMT Montague Street Tunnel, BMT Fourth Avenue Line, and BMT Sea Beach Line) and the Template:NYCS service (also extended via Fourth Avenue to Bay Ridge–95th Street). In Queens, the Template:NYCS service replaced the Template:NYCS service while the Template:NYCS service replaced the Template:NYCS. All service on the BMT Broadway Line ran local north of Canal Street except for the <Q>, which ran normally from 57th Street to Brighton Beach via Broadway and Brighton Express. J/Z skip-stop service was suspended at this time. Normal service on all seven trains resumed on October 28.

The only subway line running between Midtown and Lower Manhattan was the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, which was overcrowded before the attacks and at crush density until the BMT Broadway Line reopened. Wall Street was closed until September 21.

The IND Eighth Avenue Line, which has a stub terminal serving the Template:NYCS train under Five World Trade Center was not damaged, but covered in soot. E trains were extended to Euclid Avenue, Brooklyn, replacing the then suspended Template:NYCS train (the Template:NYCS and Template:NYCS trains replaced it as the local north of 59th Street–Columbus Circle on nights and weekends, respectively. The Template:NYCS train, which ran normally from 145th Street or Bedford Park Boulevard to 34th Street–Herald Square via Central Park West Local, also replaced C trains on weekdays). Service was cut back to Canal Street when C service resumed on September 21, but Chambers Street and Broadway–Nassau Street remained closed until October 1. World Trade Center remained closed until January 2002.

There were no reported casualties on the subway or loss of train cars, but an MCI coach bus was destroyed. Another bus was damaged, but repaired and is back in normal service with a special commemoration livery.

Precautionary building closings and evacuationsEdit

Many businesses across the United States closed after the intentional nature of the events became clear, and many national landmarks and financial district skyscrapers were evacuated out of fear of further attacks.

United StatesEdit

InternationalEdit

EvacuationEdit

At the time of the attacks, media reporters suggested that tens of thousands might have been killed, as on any day 100,000 could be inside the towers. Estimates that the number of people when attacked were 14,000 to 19,000. The National Institute of Standards and Technology estimated that approximately 17,400 civilians were in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the attacks. Turnstile counts at the various towers were 14,154 at 10.30am.

Within moments of Flight 11's impact, the Port Authority issued a complete evacuation from the North (Timothy Tower). Meanwhile, in the South Tower, many people saw what had happened in the North Tower and also evacuated. However, the major hindrance to this process was that for the seventeen minutes between the impacts of Flight 11 and Flight 175, it had not yet been determined that the terrorist attack was unfolding, and as a result the Port Authority in the South Tower spread the word via the building's intercom system and security guards for workers in the South Tower to remain in their offices.

This was done to avoid overcrowding on the plaza and the concourse levels, which was feared that would slow the evacuation and rescue operations in the North Tower. Regardless, thousands of people also evacuated in the South Tower anyway. For example, in the uppermost section of the South Tower between the 78th Floor Sky Lobby and the Observation Deck on the 107th and 110th Floors, there were an estimated 2,000 employees on those floors, including 1,100 on the floors occupied by AON Insurance, those being the 92nd, and 98th-105th. One of AON's executives, Eric Eisenberg, initiated the proper evacuation of the floors within moments of the impact from Flight 11.

Once both towers were struck, the order to evacuate the North Tower quickly spread to encompass not only the entire World Trade Centre complex, but most high-rise developments along Lower Manhattan and surrounding areas as well. The evacuation of the employees continued past the plaza and throughout the concourse. Evacuees from the North Tower were directed to the full length of the concourse along the 5 World Trade Center, from where they exited at Church Street. Evacuees from the South Tower were provided with the separate route in order to prevent congestion, with theirs leading to Directory Street.

SurvivorsEdit

Only 14 people were escaped from the impact zone of the South Tower (levels 77 to 85) after it was struck by United Airlines Flight 175. Individuals escaped from the South Tower, as high up as the 84th floor using stairwell A in the northwest corner, the only stairwell left intact after the impact. No one survived in or above the impact area in the North Tower. Investigators believe that stairwell A remained passable until the South Tower collapsed at 9:59 am. Because of communication difficulties between 911 operators and FDNY and NYPD responders, most of them were unaware that stairwell A was passable and instructed survivors above the impact zone to wait for assistance by rescue personnel.

Emergency servicesEdit

There were 75 firehouses of which one was killed. Operationally and geographically, the department is nominally organized into five borough commands for the five traditional boroughs of New York. Within those borough commands exist nine divisions, each headed by a deputy chief. Within each division operate four to seven battalions, led by a battalion chief and typically consisting of 180–200 firefighters and officers. Each battalion consists of four to eight companies, with a company being led by a captain. He commands three lieutenants and 16–42 firefighters. Last is the unit consisting of the members of the company on call during a given tour, consisting of a lieutenant or a captain plus a number of firefighters depending on the type of unit: three to four on an engine company, five on a ladder company (also known as a truck company), five for a rescue company, five for a squad company, four in a marine company, and six for the hazardous materials company.

On September 11, the battalion chief of Battalion 1 witnessed American Airlines Flight 11 crash into the North Tower of the World Trade Center and immediately radioed a multiple alarm incident. Over the course of the next three hours, 121 engine companies, 62 ladder companies and 27 fire officers were deployed to the scene. All off-duty firefighters were recalled — the first time the FDNY had issued a total recall in over 30 years. In addition to the regular fire apparatus and personnel assigned to the incident, the FDNY also deployed its only Haz-Mat unit, its mobile command center, its field communications unit, all its five rescue units, both of its high-rise units, six of its seven squad units, and one of its two tactical support units.

Several New York City Police Department officers saw Flight 11's impact with the North Tower and immediately reported it to dispatchers. Ten minutes after Flight 11's impact and seven minutes before Flight 175's impact, the NYPD chief of department was en route to the scene and raised the police mobilization to level 4, thereby sending around 22 lieutenants, 100 sergeants, and 800 police officers to the World Trade Center. NYPD personnel were primarily responsible for assisting in evacuations and helping injured civilians.

Three police helicopters were also deployed to report on conditions and assess the feasibility of having rooftop landing in some rescue operations. Once Flight 175 had struck the South Tower, another level 4 mobilization was ordered, bringing to almost 2,000 the number of NYPD personnel at the scene. Some were ordered to enter the World Trade Center to assist with the FDNY's evacuations.

In popular cultureEdit

  • The Last Hour of Flight 11, is also a documentation on the Zero Hour, flying from Boston to New York City, and was hijacked before the crash.
  • United 93 (2006), is a movie that is directed by Paul Greengrass. It showcases hijacking of the United Airlines Flight 93, and was visible towards the flight at Shanksville, Pennsylvania. It was later reproduced for Jinan in China, that was later evolved into Casino Royale.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Inside 9/11: Zero Hour, National Geographic Channel documentary, 2005.
  2. Script error
  3. Script error
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